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Preliminary results (examples)

 

 

Test site 2. Witbank - Dust Sampling

 

The distribution of samples in Witbank area map.
The distribution of samples in Witbank area.

Basic statistical parameters of chemical analysis of the samples, taken in February 2011 in South Africa. Number of samples is 46. Min – minimum value; P25 – 25th percentile value; M – arithmetical mean; GM – geometrical mean; Md – median value; P75 – 75th percentile; Max – maximum value; Std – standard deviation; Sk – skewness; Kurt – kurtosis; %R – average recovery rate (6 analysis of the standard material); RPD% – average relative percent difference (9 repetition of the analysis). Chemical analysis – ACME Analytical laboratories, Vancouver; total (4-acid) digestion, ICP-MS.

 

 

 

Min P25 M GM Md P75 Max Std %R RPD

Ca

%

 

0.09 0.35 0.89 0.65 0.67 1.06 4.19 0.84 101 3

P

%

 

0.01 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.12 0.02 95 4

Ti

%

 

0.25 0.62 1.04 0.88 0.85 1.18 4.50 0.75 94 4

Al

%

 

1.15 2.68 3.40 3.25 3.36 4.14 5.76 0.96 99 3

Na

%

 

0.01 0.07 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.14 0.46 0.08 96 3

K

%

 

0.10 0.31 0.52 0.45 0.47 0.71 1.20 0.27 98 1

Fe

%

 

2.00 4.55 6.29 5.82 5.58 6.97 17.37 2.82 103 3

Mg

%

 

0.10 0.27 0.58 0.47 0.49 0.77 2.04 0.41 98 2

Mo

mg/kg

 

1.00 1.90 2.83 2.48 2.45 3.10 12.50 1.97 100 10

Cu

mg/kg

 

13.8 44.9 73.2 63.0 58.4 79.3 300 50.6 95 13

Pb

mg/kg

 

10.8 42.5 89.3 62.8 57.9 81.1 835 126 98 16

Zn

mg/kg

 

32.0 99.0 222 162 150 257 1334 234 95 6

Ni

mg/kg

 

19.4 42.0 74.6 61.3 53.0 74.9 366 62.2 105 11

Co

mg/kg

 

7.1 18.1 24.2 22.5 23.2 26.7 63.9 9.9 105 3

Mn

mg/kg

 

610 1120 2260 1720 1440 2140 20000 2890 101 4

As

mg/kg

 

2.00 5.00 6.95 6.44 7.00 7.00 21.00 3.03 125 10

U

mg/kg

 

1.10 2.40 3.00 2.88 2.90 3.20 5.60 0.89 89 11

Th

mg/kg

 

4.1 11.1 14.7 13.5 13.0 17.4 39.1 6.6 102 11

Sr

mg/kg

 

14.0 44.0 66.8 59.0 57.5 81.0 204.0 35.3 96 5

Cd

mg/kg

 

0.10 0.10 0.23 0.18 0.20 0.30 0.90 0.18 50 34

Sb

mg/kg

 

0.30 0.90 1.88 1.51 1.50 2.40 7.20 1.37 74 18

Bi

mg/kg

 

0.10 0.30 0.42 0.37 0.40 0.50 1.00 0.20 NA 20

V

mg/kg

 

82 179 451 300 246 377 4400 681 102 4

La

mg/kg

 

10.1 21.5 30.4 28.2 29.0 34.3 77.5 13.0 106 5

Cr

mg/kg

 

299 991 5250 2700 3050 6360 43000 7560 95 8

Ba

mg/kg

 

55 201 318 270 260 400 1840 258 95 4

W

mg/kg

 

0.40 1.00 1.25 1.16 1.10 1.60 2.40 0.47 83 17

Zr

mg/kg

 

58 120 145 139 130 167 258 45 99 9

Ce

mg/kg

 

27.0 59.0 85.0 78.0 76.0 102 185 37.2 99 6

Sn

mg/kg

 

1.80 3.00 5.48 4.68 4.40 7.20 18.5 3.38 99 28

Y

mg/kg

 

6.6 14.1 17.1 16.4 16.7 19.4 32.3 4.9 104 7

Nb

mg/kg

 

4.1 10.1 12.1 11.6 11.1 14.2 22.4 3.8 92 7

Ta

mg/kg

 

0.20 0.60 0.73 0.69 0.70 0.80 1.50 0.24 106 16

Be

mg/kg

 

0.50 0.50 1.14 0.98 1.00 2.00 2.00 0.62 NA 50

Sc

mg/kg

 

3.00 6.00 7.24 6.97 7.00 8.00 15.0 2.09 88 3

Li

mg/kg

 

6.4 12.9 16.3 15.4 14.8 20.3 29.3 5.7 91 5

Rb

mg/kg

 

7.8 21.3 33.3 29.9 31.5 41.3 70.1 15.1 96 3

Hf

mg/kg

 

1.40 3.20 3.95 3.78 3.60 4.40 7.10 1.21 94 9

Hg

mg/kg

 

0.005 0.030 0.092 0.044 0.040 0.060 1.71 0.250 117 21

Table of factor loadings of selected elements concentrations of street dust samples in Witbank area. Varimax raw rotation of factors has been applied. Factor loadings, higher than 0.5 are marked. Expl.Var – eigenvalue; Prp. Totl – explained variance (%).

Factor 1 2 3 4
Th 0,96 -0,02 0,13 0,12
Ce 0,94 0,01 0,02 0,19
La 0,91 0,03 0,06 0,24
U 0,91 0,00 0,11 0,19
Sb -0,01 0,92 0,01 0,10
Sn 0,10 0,89 0,09 -0,11
Cu 0,03 0,82 -0,24 0,10
Pb 0,12 0,70 -0,08 0,23
Cr -0,09 0,66 -0,27 -0,17
Zn -0,35 0,66 -0,12 0,47
Co 0,06 0,27 -0,86 0,07
Fe -0,12 0,05 -0,82 -0,18
V -0,36 0,10 -0,77 -0,07
Mn -0,28 -0,13 -0,74 -0,11
Sr 0,07 0,14 -0,09 0,88
Li 0,32 0,01 0,20 0,87
Al 0,43 0,02 0,02 0,83
P 0,27 0,15 0,33 0,72
Sc 0,19 -0,09 -0,57 0,63
Expl.Var 4,24 3,83 3,23 3,69
Prp.Totl 22 20 17 19

 

The distribution of factor 1 scores. Factor 1 represents the impact of coal mining to the environment.
 
The distribution of factor 2 scores. Factor 2 represents the impact of traffic and population to the environment.
The distribution of factor 2 scores. Factor 2 represents the impact of traffic and population to the environment.
 
The distribution of factor 3 scores. Factor 3 represents the impact of metal smelting to the environment.
The distribution of factor 3 scores. Factor 3 represents the impact of metal smelting to the environment.
 
The distribution of factor 4 scores. Factor 4 represents the natural association of elements; higher value means better sample (less natural dust from soil is in the sample).
The distribution of factor 4 scores. Factor 4 represents the natural association of elements;
higher value means better sample (less natural dust from soil is in the sample).

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The distribution of vanadium, typical element for Evraz Higveld steel & vanadium plant (large producer of vanadium). Diameter of the circle represents the vanadium concentration in street dust.
The distribution of vanadium, typical element for Evraz Higveld steel & vanadium plant (large producer of vanadium).
Diameter of the circle represents the vanadium concentration in street dust.
 
The distribution of chromium, typical element for Ferrobank area industry. Diameter of the circle represents the Cr concentration in street dust.
The distribution of chromium, typical element for Ferrobank area industry.
Diameter of the circle represents the Cr concentration in street dust.
 
The impact of traffic to the environment (use of leaded fuel) in the Witbank area.
The impact of traffic to the environment (use of leaded fuel) in the Witbank area.
 
Dust values table
The comparision of maximum values, detected in different areas (SA – Witbank area, 46 samples; CZ – Sokolov area,
29 samples; SLO – Slovenian towns, 23 samples, data from Šajn (1999))
for the selected elements. Values for Ca and Fe are in %, other values are in mg/kg.
 
Dust values graph
The range of influence of Evraz Highveld Steel & Vanadium plant, estimated according to the V and Mn concentrations
in street dust, collected east and west from the plant. Estimated range of influence
is 13 km in W direction and 17 km in E direction.

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